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Archive for 2020年11月

Physical Activity Attenuates the Association between Sedentary Behaviour and Risk of Death

2020年11月28日 留下评论

On November 26, in a new study published in the British Journal of Sports Medicine, a subsidiary of the British Medical Journal (BMJ), a meta-analysis of 9 studies by 40 scientists from institutions such as Harvard University T.H Chan School of Public Health in USA, Rollinska School of Medicine in Sweden and Norwegian Academy of Sports Sciences showed that 30 to 40 minutes of moderate to high-intensity physical activity a day can offset the side effects of 10 hours of sedentary behaviour for the body to reduce all-cause mortality (death caused by various causes). Carrying out some frequent activities, such as cycling, walking, etc., can reduce your risk of premature death to the same level as an individual who is not very sedentary. This connection can be seen in the data accumulated by thousands of people.

On the same day, the World Health Organization released Guidelines on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviour (2020 edition), emphasizing that everyone, regardless of age and ability, can engage in physical activity, and that every type of activity is beneficial to health. People tend to increase in sedentary behaviour at a time when many of them have to work at home due to COVID-19, which causes them to stay indoors for a long time. But we can still protect our health and offset the harmful effects of lack of exercise. The guideline emphasizes that people of all ages and abilities can engage in physical activity. Every type of exercise is important. All sports are valuable. No matter how much exercise is, it is better than nothing.

Two of the six key messages in the guideline are recommendations for sedentary behavior.

5 Too much sedentary behaviour can be unhealthy. It can increase the risk of heart disease, cancer, and type-2 diabetes. Limiting sedentary time and being physically active is good for health.

6 Everyone can benefit from increasing physical activity and reducing sedentary behaviour, including pregnant and postpartum women and people living with chronic conditions or disability.

11月26日,发表在《英国医学杂志(BMJ)》子刊《British Journal of Sports Medicine(英国运动医学杂志)》上的一项新研究中,由美国哈佛大学T.H Chan公共卫生学院、瑞典卡罗林斯卡医学院和挪威体育科学学院等机构的40名科学家对9项研究的荟萃分析表明,每天30到40分钟的中到高强度体育活动,可以抵消掉10小时久坐给身体带来的负面影响,以降低全因死亡率(各种原因导致的死亡)。进行一些频繁的活动,如骑自行车、健步走等,可以将你早逝的风险降低到与不怎么久坐的个体一样。这种联系可以从成千上万人积累的数据中看到。

同一天,世界卫生组织发布了2020年版《关于身体活动和久坐行为指南》,强调每个人,不论年龄和能力,都可以进行身体活动,而且每一种活动方式都有益健康。在许多人因新冠疫情而不得不在家工作之际,新冠肺炎使人们长时间待在室内,导致久坐行为增加。但我们仍然可以保护自己的健康,抵消缺乏运动带来的有害影响。该指南强调,所有年龄段和能力的人都可以进行身体活动,每一种运动都很重要,所有的体育运动都是有价值的,无论运动量多少,运动总比不动好。

该指南的6条“关键信息”中有2条都是关于对久坐行为的建议。

5久坐不动的行为不利健康。这会增加心脏病、癌症和2型糖尿病风险。限制久坐时间,积极锻炼身体对健康有好处。

6人人都可以从增加身体活动和减少久坐行为中受益,包括孕妇和产后妇女以及慢性病患者或残疾人。

You can refer to the following pages and files for detailed information:

1. WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour: at a glance

Page: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240014886

File (in English) : https://summersnow.herokuapp.com/电子书备份/博客文档/WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour at a glance.pdf

File (in Chinese): https://summersnow.herokuapp.com/电子书备份/博客文档/世卫组织关于身体活动和久坐行为的指南(简述).pdf

2. WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behavior

Page: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240015128

File: https://summersnow.herokuapp.com/电子书备份/博客文档/WHO guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behavior.pdf

3. WHO Guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour: web annex evidence profiles

Page: https://www.who.int/publications/i/item/9789240015111

File: https://summersnow.herokuapp.com/电子书备份/博客文档/WHO Guidelines on physical activity and sedentary behaviour web annex.pdf

4. Joint associations of accelero-meter measured physical activity and sedentary time with all-cause mortality: a harmonised meta-analysis in more than 44 000 middle-aged and older individuals

Page: https://bjsm.bmj.com/content/54/24/1499

File: https://summersnow.herokuapp.com/电子书备份/博客文档/Joint associations of accelero-meter measured physical activity and sedentary time with all-cause mortality.pdf

部分摘自于:

1. 对于身体活动而言,一分耕耘一分收获!世卫发布2020版身体活动和久坐行为指南

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/HJ25Wb1H7WtVyUUCKRzNYQ

2. Every move counts towards better health – says WHO

https://www.who.int/news/item/25-11-2020-every-move-counts-towards-better-health-says-who

3. BMJ子刊:多少运动量,可以抵消掉10小时久坐带来的健康危害

https://mp.weixin.qq.com/s/3FQ84VllN1IQRgRYUnDn9Q

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) and Ergonomic Interventions for Preventing them among Office Workers

2020年11月16日 留下评论

What are MSDs?

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are injuries and disorders that affect the human body’s movement or musculoskeletal system such as muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments, nerves, bones and the localized blood circulation system, that are caused or aggravated primarily by work and by the effects of the immediate environment in which work is carried out.

Most MSDs are cumulative disorders, resulting from repeated exposure to high or low intensity loads over a long period of time. However, MSDs can also be acute traumas, such as fractures, that occur during an accident.

These disorders mainly affect the back, low back, neck, shoulders and upper limbs, but can also affect the lower limbs. Some MSDs, such as carpal tunnel syndrome in the wrist, are specific because of their well-defined signs and symptoms. Others are non-specific because only pain or discomfort exists without evidence of a clear specific disorder.

The Cause of MSDs – Exposure to Risk Factors

When a worker is exposed to MSD risk factors, they begin to fatigue. When fatigue outruns their body’s recovery system, they develop a musculoskeletal imbalance. Over time, as fatigue continues to outrun recovery and the musculoskeletal imbalance persists, a musculoskeletal disorder develops.

These risk factors can be broken up into two categories: ergonomic risk factors and individual-related risk factors.

There are three primary ergonomic risk factors.

High task repetition. Many work tasks and cycles are repetitive in nature, and are frequently controlled by hourly or daily production targets and work processes. High task repetition, when combined with other risks factors such high force and/or awkward postures, can contribute to the formation of MSDs. A job is considered highly repetitive if the cycle time is 30 seconds or less.

Forceful exertions. Many work tasks require high force loads on the human body. Muscle effort increases in response to high force requirements, increasing associated fatigue which can lead to MSDs.

Repetitive or sustained awkward postures. Awkward postures place excessive force on joints and overload the muscles and tendons around the effected joint. Joints of the body are most efficient when they operate closest to the mid-range motion of the joint. Risk of MSDs is increased when joints are worked outside of this mid-range repetitively or for sustained periods of time without adequate recovery time.

Individual risk factors include:

Poor work practices. Workers who use poor work practices, body mechanics and lifting techniques are introducing unnecessary risk factors that can contribute to MSDs. These poor practices create unnecessary stress on their bodies that increases fatigue and decreases their body’s ability to properly recover.

Poor overall health habits. Workers who smoke, drink excessively, are obese, or exhibit numerous other poor health habits are putting themselves at risk for not only musculoskeletal disorders, but also for other chronic diseases that will shorten their life and health span.

Poor rest and recovery. MSDs develop when fatigue outruns the worker’s recovery system, causing a musculoskeletal imbalance. Workers who do not get adequate rest and recovery put themselves at higher risk.

Poor nutrition, fitness and hydration. For a country as developed as the United States, an alarming number of people are malnourished, dehydrated and at such a poor level of physical fitness that climbing one flight of stairs puts many people out of breath. Workers who do not take care of their bodies are putting themselves at a higher risk of developing musculoskeletal and chronic health problems.

Ergonomic Interventions for Preventing MSDs among Office Workers

Office works are among jobs that have high prevalence of MSDs. Prolonged sitting, work with computer, repetitive works, static postures, and bad environmental conditions are some of the causes for MSDs. Ergonomic interventions include physical, organizational and cognitive components.

Physical ergonomic interventions. Physical ergonomic interventions include improving the equipment and environment of the workplace. The aim of these methods is to reduce the physical strain to the musculoskeletal system, thus reducing risk of injury. It’s found that the use of an arm support or a mouse based on neutral posture may prevent MSDs of the neck and shoulder. Workstation adjustment, and sit-stand desks do not have an effect on upper limb pain compared to no intervention.

Organizational ergonomic interventions. Meanwhile, organizational ergonomic interventions consist of allowing optimum workplace and rest time for the musculoskeletal system to recover from fatigue, thus reducing the risk of long-term injury. It’s found that supplementary breaks may reduce neck and upper limb discomfort among data entry workers.

Cognitive ergonomic interventions. Cognitive ergonomic interventions consist of improving mental processes such as perception, memory, reasoning and motor response through modifying work processes and training. The aim of these methods is to reduce mental workload, increase reliability and reduce error, which may have an indirect effect on reducing strain on the musculoskeletal system.

You can refer to the following three textbooks for detailed information:

1. Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) in the Workplace: a Forensic and Epidemiological Analysis

https://summersnow.herokuapp.com/电子书备份/博客文档/Ergonomics and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the workplace_ a forensic and epidemiological analysis (2019, Taylor _ Francis).pdf

2. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace Low Back and Upper Extremities

https://summersnow.herokuapp.com/电子书备份/博客文档/Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace Low Back and Upper Extremities.pdf

3. Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Workplace: Principles and Practice (2nd Edition)

https://summersnow.herokuapp.com/电子书备份/博客文档/Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Workplace_ Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition (2006).pdf

4. Occupational Ergonomics: Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Limb and Back

https://summersnow.herokuapp.com/电子书备份/博客文档/Occupational Ergonomics_ Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Limb and Back-CRC Press (2000).pdf

5. Physical Therapy Prescriptions for Musculoskeletal Disorders

https://summersnow.herokuapp.com/电子书备份/博客文档/Physical Therapy Prescriptions for Musculoskeletal Disorders-LWW (2010).pdf

部分摘自于:

1. Factsheet 71-Introduction to Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders

https://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/factsheet-71-introduction-work-related-musculoskeletal-disorders/

2. The Definition and Causes of Musculoskeletal Disorders

3. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Office Workers

https://sites.kowsarpub.com/jjhs/articles/15012.html/

4. Ergonomic Interventions for Preventing Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Limb and Neck among Office Workers

https://www.cochrane.org/CD008570/OCCHEALTH_ergonomic-interventions-preventing-work-related-musculoskeletal-disorders-upper-limb-and-neck-among/

分类:心理学 标签:,

Experience of Tutorial Students Participating in Research Training Program

2020年11月10日 1条评论

After four years of undergraduate tutorial guidance and practice, I have summarized some of my experience. On the basis of fully understanding the learning foundation, professional expertise, learning interest, personality characteristics and other aspects of the students under the guidance, I made targeted training programs for the students of four grades who were with different professional foundations, postgraduate entrance examination intentions and willingness to participate in scientific research activities. The tutor work plan is now under implement, and the training model of the tutorial system is continuously explored in the process of practice.

The graduating class students have passed the study tasks of postgraduate review and re-examination, employment and graduation design. For them, more guidance is given to employment and graduation design. In terms of topic selection for graduation design, considering that some students have gone through scientific research training before who have accumulated some relevant skills and experience, they continued to improve the original topic selection on the original basis which could reflect the typical research topic selection inheritance and continuity. This approach is worthy of further promotion in the graduation design work for follow-up tutorial students.

For the lower grade students, after fully understanding their respective wishes, it was found that most students felt that they had a weak foundation and might not be able to adapt to the requirements of scientific research activities for their English skills and professional abilities in the future. They would continue to complete the follow-up studies in accordance with the professional training program. Soon after entering the university, the freshmen were let to know the research direction of the tutor at the first time, so that they could selectively participate in undergraduate scientific research activities according to their own interests and specialties who were able to improve their professional ability in all aspects. But many of them had no intention. This phenomenon may become a normal state in the future tutorial system training process. It is worth continuing to explore how to ensure the continuity of scientific research activities.

In addition to face-to-face exchanges in scientific research activities, we often interact in QQ groups to understand the mental state of students and the progress of scientific research activities. After arranging their respective scientific research tasks, the group leader is responsible for the specific implementation. Progress files are uploaded to the group space in time to prepare for the next activity. This group takes the form of concentrated participation in scientific research and training activities as the main part and individual exchanges as a supplement. It carries out regular and targeted learning activities for students, so that the communication between teachers and students extends from the classroom to outside the classroom. It will play a pivotal role in improving professional quality for students, scientific research and innovation ability, and students will benefit for life.