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Posts Tagged ‘Office Ergonomics’

Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) and Ergonomic Interventions for Preventing them among Office Workers

2020年11月16日 留下评论

What are MSDs?

Musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) are injuries and disorders that affect the human body’s movement or musculoskeletal system such as muscles, joints, tendons, ligaments, nerves, bones and the localized blood circulation system, that are caused or aggravated primarily by work and by the effects of the immediate environment in which work is carried out.

Most MSDs are cumulative disorders, resulting from repeated exposure to high or low intensity loads over a long period of time. However, MSDs can also be acute traumas, such as fractures, that occur during an accident.

These disorders mainly affect the back, low back, neck, shoulders and upper limbs, but can also affect the lower limbs. Some MSDs, such as carpal tunnel syndrome in the wrist, are specific because of their well-defined signs and symptoms. Others are non-specific because only pain or discomfort exists without evidence of a clear specific disorder.

The Cause of MSDs – Exposure to Risk Factors

When a worker is exposed to MSD risk factors, they begin to fatigue. When fatigue outruns their body’s recovery system, they develop a musculoskeletal imbalance. Over time, as fatigue continues to outrun recovery and the musculoskeletal imbalance persists, a musculoskeletal disorder develops.

These risk factors can be broken up into two categories: ergonomic risk factors and individual-related risk factors.

There are three primary ergonomic risk factors.

High task repetition. Many work tasks and cycles are repetitive in nature, and are frequently controlled by hourly or daily production targets and work processes. High task repetition, when combined with other risks factors such high force and/or awkward postures, can contribute to the formation of MSDs. A job is considered highly repetitive if the cycle time is 30 seconds or less.

Forceful exertions. Many work tasks require high force loads on the human body. Muscle effort increases in response to high force requirements, increasing associated fatigue which can lead to MSDs.

Repetitive or sustained awkward postures. Awkward postures place excessive force on joints and overload the muscles and tendons around the effected joint. Joints of the body are most efficient when they operate closest to the mid-range motion of the joint. Risk of MSDs is increased when joints are worked outside of this mid-range repetitively or for sustained periods of time without adequate recovery time.

Individual risk factors include:

Poor work practices. Workers who use poor work practices, body mechanics and lifting techniques are introducing unnecessary risk factors that can contribute to MSDs. These poor practices create unnecessary stress on their bodies that increases fatigue and decreases their body’s ability to properly recover.

Poor overall health habits. Workers who smoke, drink excessively, are obese, or exhibit numerous other poor health habits are putting themselves at risk for not only musculoskeletal disorders, but also for other chronic diseases that will shorten their life and health span.

Poor rest and recovery. MSDs develop when fatigue outruns the worker’s recovery system, causing a musculoskeletal imbalance. Workers who do not get adequate rest and recovery put themselves at higher risk.

Poor nutrition, fitness and hydration. For a country as developed as the United States, an alarming number of people are malnourished, dehydrated and at such a poor level of physical fitness that climbing one flight of stairs puts many people out of breath. Workers who do not take care of their bodies are putting themselves at a higher risk of developing musculoskeletal and chronic health problems.

Ergonomic Interventions for Preventing MSDs among Office Workers

Office works are among jobs that have high prevalence of MSDs. Prolonged sitting, work with computer, repetitive works, static postures, and bad environmental conditions are some of the causes for MSDs. Ergonomic interventions include physical, organizational and cognitive components.

Physical ergonomic interventions. Physical ergonomic interventions include improving the equipment and environment of the workplace. The aim of these methods is to reduce the physical strain to the musculoskeletal system, thus reducing risk of injury. It’s found that the use of an arm support or a mouse based on neutral posture may prevent MSDs of the neck and shoulder. Workstation adjustment, and sit-stand desks do not have an effect on upper limb pain compared to no intervention.

Organizational ergonomic interventions. Meanwhile, organizational ergonomic interventions consist of allowing optimum workplace and rest time for the musculoskeletal system to recover from fatigue, thus reducing the risk of long-term injury. It’s found that supplementary breaks may reduce neck and upper limb discomfort among data entry workers.

Cognitive ergonomic interventions. Cognitive ergonomic interventions consist of improving mental processes such as perception, memory, reasoning and motor response through modifying work processes and training. The aim of these methods is to reduce mental workload, increase reliability and reduce error, which may have an indirect effect on reducing strain on the musculoskeletal system.

You can refer to the following three textbooks for detailed information:

1. Ergonomics and Musculoskeletal Disorders (MSDs) in the Workplace: a Forensic and Epidemiological Analysis

https://summersnow.herokuapp.com/电子书备份/博客文档/Ergonomics and musculoskeletal disorders (MSDs) in the workplace_ a forensic and epidemiological analysis (2019, Taylor _ Francis).pdf

2. Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace Low Back and Upper Extremities

https://summersnow.herokuapp.com/电子书备份/博客文档/Musculoskeletal Disorders and the Workplace Low Back and Upper Extremities.pdf

3. Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Workplace: Principles and Practice (2nd Edition)

https://summersnow.herokuapp.com/电子书备份/博客文档/Musculoskeletal Disorders in the Workplace_ Principles and Practice, 2nd Edition (2006).pdf

4. Occupational Ergonomics: Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Limb and Back

https://summersnow.herokuapp.com/电子书备份/博客文档/Occupational Ergonomics_ Work Related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Limb and Back-CRC Press (2000).pdf

5. Physical Therapy Prescriptions for Musculoskeletal Disorders

https://summersnow.herokuapp.com/电子书备份/博客文档/Physical Therapy Prescriptions for Musculoskeletal Disorders-LWW (2010).pdf

部分摘自于:

1. Factsheet 71-Introduction to Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders

https://osha.europa.eu/en/publications/factsheet-71-introduction-work-related-musculoskeletal-disorders/

2. The Definition and Causes of Musculoskeletal Disorders

3. Prevalence of Musculoskeletal Disorders Among Office Workers

https://sites.kowsarpub.com/jjhs/articles/15012.html/

4. Ergonomic Interventions for Preventing Work-related Musculoskeletal Disorders of the Upper Limb and Neck among Office Workers

https://www.cochrane.org/CD008570/OCCHEALTH_ergonomic-interventions-preventing-work-related-musculoskeletal-disorders-upper-limb-and-neck-among/

分类:心理学 标签:,

Office Ergonomics Tips to Keep You Healthy

2020年08月25日 留下评论

Follow these 10 office ergonomics tips to help you avoid fatigue:

1) Make sure that the weight of your arms is supported at all times. If your arms are not supported, the muscles of your neck and shoulders will be painful by the end of the day.

2) Watch your head position, and try to keep the weight of your head directly above the neck. Don’t “crane” your head and neck forward.

3) Don’t be a slouch! Slouching puts more pressure on the discs and vertebrae of your back. Use the lumbar support of your chair and avoid sitting in a way that places body weight more on one than on the other. Move your chair as close to your work as possible to avoid leaning and reaching.

4) The monitor should be placed directly in front of you, with the top no higher than eye level. The keyboard should be directly in front of the monitor so you don’t have to frequently turn your head and neck.

5) Talking on the phone with the phone receiver jammed between the neck and ear is really bad practice.

6) The keyboard and the mouse should close enough to prevent excessive reaching which strains the shoulders and arms.

7) Avoid eye strain by making sure that your monitor is not too close, it should be at least an arm’s length away. You can rest your eyes periodically for several seconds by looking at objects at a distance to give your eyes a break.

8) Take steps to control screen glare, and make sure that the monitor is not placed in front of a window or a bright background.

9) Do not maintain the same sitting posture for a long time. Leave the seat for a few minutes every hour.

10) The feet should not be dangling when you are seated. If your feet don’t comfortably reach the floor or there is pressure on the backs of your legs, use a footrest or lower the keyboard and chair.

请遵循以下10条办公工效学提示,以帮助您避免疲劳:

1)确保始终支撑手臂的重量。如果不支撑手臂,则一天结束时脖子和肩膀的肌肉会酸痛。

2)注意头部的位置,并尝试将头部的重量保持在颈部的正上方。不要“向前”抬头。

3)不要偻背!松弛会给您的背部椎间盘和椎骨施加更大的压力。使用椅子的腰部支撑,避免坐着将体重放在身体一侧。将椅子尽可能靠近工作位置,以免倾斜和伸手。

4)显示器应直接放在您的前面,并且顶部不要高于眼睛的高度。键盘应直接位于显示器的前面,因此您不必经常转动头和脖子。

5)在电话听筒夹在脖子和耳朵之间的情况下进行电话交谈确实是不好的做法。

6)键盘和鼠标不要离的太远,以防止过度伸直而使肩膀和手臂绷紧。

7)确保显示器不要太靠近眼睛,距离眼睛至少一臂之遥,以免造成眼睛疲劳。您可以通过注视远处的物体定期休息几秒钟,以使眼睛休息。

8)采取措施控制屏幕眩光,并确保显示器未放置在窗户前或明亮的背景前。

9)不要长时间保持相同的坐姿状态,每一小时离开座椅休息几分钟。

10)就座时,脚不要悬空。如果您的脚无法舒适地落在地板上或双腿的背部受压,请使用脚凳或放下键盘和椅子。

引自并修订于:

1. Office ergonomics: Your how-to guide

2. 10 Office Ergonomics Tips to Help You Avoid Fatigue

An Introduction to Office Ergonomics

2020年08月24日 留下评论

What is Office Ergonomics?

Office ergonomics is the application of ergonomics on office environment. The goal of office ergonomics is to set up your office work space so that it fits you and the job you are doing.

Office ergonomics can help you be more comfortable at work. It can help lower stress and injury caused by awkward positions and repetitive tasks. It focuses on how things are set up in your office work space, such as:

-Your workstation set-up, how you sit, and how long you stay in one position.

-How you do a certain task, the kinds of movements you make, and whether you make the same movements over and over.

-Your work area, including light, noise, and temperature.

-The tools you use to do your job and whether they are set up to fit your needs.

When your workstation is set up right, you may:

-Be less likely to have problems such as headaches or eye strain.

-Reduce neck and back pain.

-Prevent bursitis or tendon problems that are linked to doing the same task over and over (repetitive tasks).

The Importance of Ergonomics in the Office

Reduces Costs – By investing in office ergonomic strategies, you reduce ergonomic risk factors like MSDs. MSDs are musculoskeletal disorders that occur due to movement repetition or poor posture. About one-third of workers compensation are paid to cases of MSD. Reduce these costs. Invest in ergonomic office chairs.

Boosts Productivity – Office ergonomics boosts productivity. Designing a workspace that promotes good posture, less repetitive motions, easier heights and reaches, and less exertion nurtures a more efficient work process. More efficiency equals more productivity.

Work Quality – Poor office ergonomics leads to tired and easily irritated workers that cannot do their best work. The best way to keep your employees in top form is to invest in office ergonomics. Proper office ergonomics will keep everyone in top working form.

Improvement in Employee Engagement – Office ergonomics will reduce turnover, lessen absenteeism, boost morale, and increase employee involvement. Also, employees will appreciate that the company that they work for is working so hard to see to their safety and health.

Safety Culture – Investing in ergonomics shows your company is committed to health and safety. Your workers are your most valuable asset and keeping them healthy and safe is good business and the right thing to do.

You can refer to the following three textbooks for detailed information:

1. Office Ergonomics Practical solutions for a safer workplace-2002

2. Office Ergonomics Practical Applications-2007

3. Office ergonomics and human factors practical applications-2018

部分摘自于:

1. Office Ergonomics

2. The Importance of Ergonomics in the Office

分类:心理学 标签:,